LLB Important Notice / 2023 Llb Syllabus

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Important Syllabus of LLB Programme

Students can take help from the below mentioned list about the important LLB subjects covered in 3-year Law curriculum:


Jurisprudence is the study and philosophy of law. It encompasses various aspects of the law, including legal systems, legal theories, legal institutions, and legal principles. Jurisprudence explores the nature, purpose, and scope of law, as well as its relationship with morality, politics, and society.

In jurisprudence, legal scholars and philosophers analyze legal concepts such as justice, equality, rights, and obligations, and examine how these concepts are applied in various legal systems around the world. They also study the history of law and how it has evolved over time, as well as the current trends and challenges in the legal field.

Overall, jurisprudence is a broad field that seeks to deepen our understanding of the law, its foundations, and its implications for society. Importance of the subject of jurisprudence and legal theory, legal meaning of law, significance and relationship between the law & morals, relationship between the law & methodology, various definitions/nature and the scope, relevance of studying different schools/sources of law, jurisprudential aspects of concepts, study of comparative law in modern times, etc.

2.Constitutional law

Constitutional law is the branch of law that deals with the interpretation and application of a country’s constitution. A constitution is a document that establishes the fundamental principles and rules that govern a nation or state. Constitutional law outlines the structure of government, sets out the rights and freedoms of citizens, and establishes the limits of governmental power.

Constitutional law covers a wide range of topics, including the separation of powers, the role of the judiciary, the distribution of powers between different levels of government, and the protection of individual rights and liberties. Constitutional law also addresses issues such as the process for amending a constitution, the establishment of executive and legislative branches of government, and the relationship between the government and the people.

Constitutional law is an important aspect of the legal system because it provides the foundation for the entire legal system of a country. The principles and rules established in a constitution are essential in shaping the legal framework of a nation, and they help to ensure that the government operates in a fair and just manner. Salient features of the Constitution and system of governance in India, constitutionalism, position of the President and working of executive, various types of bills and procedures, various qualifications and disqualifications of the members of Parliament/Legislature, working of the union and state legislatures, judicial appointments, functioning of legislature, executive, judiciary, constitutional amendment, judicial review, preamble, citizenship, equality, etc.

3.Law of contracts

The law of contracts is the body of law that governs the formation, enforcement, and interpretation of agreements between parties. A contract is a legally binding agreement between two or more parties that creates rights and obligations that can be enforced by law.

The law of contracts covers a broad range of topics, including the elements of a valid contract, the formation of contracts, the interpretation of contractual terms, the performance of contracts, and the remedies available for breach of contract.

The elements of a valid contract typically include an offer, acceptance, consideration, and a mutual intention to be bound by the terms of the agreement. The formation of a contract may be subject to certain formalities, such as the requirement of a written agreement in certain circumstances.

Contractual terms may be express or implied, and may be interpreted according to their plain meaning, the intentions of the parties, or the customs and practices of the relevant industry or community.

The performance of a contract may be subject to certain conditions and requirements, and failure to perform may result in a breach of contract. Remedies for breach of contract may include damages, specific performance, or cancellation of the contract.

Overall, the law of contracts is a fundamental area of law that plays a crucial role in the functioning of modern commerce and society.

Concepts and general principles, operative part, government contracts, standard form contracts, distinct features of transactions, guarantee, indemnity, pledge, bailment and agency from Indian contract act, sale of goods act, 1930, Indian partnership act, 1932, limited liability partnership, specific relief act, 1963.

4.Law of torts

The law of torts is the branch of civil law that deals with civil wrongs or injuries caused by one person to another. The term “tort” comes from the Latin word “tortum,” which means “wrong.”

Torts can arise from a wide range of activities, such as negligence, intentional wrongdoing, or strict liability. Negligence occurs when a person fails to exercise reasonable care, and as a result, causes harm to another person. Intentional wrongdoing occurs when a person deliberately causes harm to another person, such as in cases of assault, battery, or defamation. Strict liability arises in cases where a person is held responsible for harm caused to another person, even if the harm was not intentional and no fault or negligence can be proven.

The law of torts covers a wide range of issues, including personal injury, property damage, and economic losses. Some common examples of torts include car accidents, slip and fall injuries, medical malpractice, product liability, and defamation.

Remedies for torts may include compensatory damages, which are meant to compensate the injured party for their losses, such as medical expenses, lost wages, and pain and suffering. Punitive damages may also be awarded in some cases to punish the wrongdoer and deter similar conduct in the future.

Overall, the law of torts is an important area of law that aims to provide compensation and deter wrongful conduct, and plays a critical role in protecting the rights and interests of individuals and businesses.

Process of the evolution of the law of torts and its practice in India, conceptualization of different approaches, relevance of common law, torts of defamation, negligence, nuisance, trespass, malicious prosecution and various defenses available against them. fixation of liability in the name of strict, absolute and vicarious liability, etc.

5.Labour law

Labour law, also known as employment law, is the area of law that governs the relationships between employers, employees, trade unions, and the government. It deals with issues such as wages, working conditions, health and safety, discrimination, and collective bargaining.

Labour law sets out the rights and obligations of both employers and employees. It provides the legal framework for the negotiation of collective agreements, which govern the terms and conditions of employment for unionized workers. It also establishes minimum standards for employment, such as minimum wage, maximum hours of work, and mandatory rest periods.

Labour law also deals with the rights of employees, such as the right to form or join a union, the right to participate in collective bargaining, and the right to strike. It provides protections against discrimination, harassment, and unjust dismissal, and requires employers to provide a safe and healthy workplace.

In addition, labour law governs the relationship between employers and employees in cases of termination, layoffs, and severance. It establishes rules for the calculation of notice periods, severance pay, and other benefits that may be owed to employees upon termination of their employment.

Overall, labour law is an important area of law that plays a crucial role in regulating the relationship between employers and employees, protecting the rights and interests of workers, and promoting fair and equitable treatment in the workplace.

Conceptualization of different approaches, concepts related to labour welfare, concept of social security, concepts involved in the study of labour laws and their growth, contribution of growth of the concept of trade unionism in India, factories act, industrial disputes act and its role in the settlement of industrial disputes, topics related to strike, lay-off, retrenchment, lock-out, etc.

6.Law of crimes

The law of crimes, also known as criminal law, is the branch of law that deals with offenses against society as a whole, rather than individual disputes between parties. Criminal law defines the types of behavior that are considered illegal and establishes the punishments that can be imposed for violating those laws.

Criminal law covers a wide range of offenses, from minor traffic violations to serious crimes such as murder, robbery, and fraud. Crimes are typically divided into two categories: misdemeanors, which are less serious offenses that are punishable by fines or short-term imprisonment, and felonies, which are more serious offenses that can result in longer-term imprisonment or even death.

The law of crimes also sets out the procedural rules that govern the investigation, prosecution, and punishment of criminal offenses. These rules include the requirement of a fair trial, the presumption of innocence, the burden of proof, and the right to legal representation.

Punishments for criminal offenses may include fines, imprisonment, community service, probation, and, in some cases, the death penalty. The severity of the punishment typically depends on the nature and severity of the crime, as well as the defendant’s criminal history and other relevant factors.

Overall, criminal law is an essential area of law that helps to maintain public safety, promote social order, and hold individuals accountable for their actions

Criminal liability, general exceptions, inchoate offences, offences related to marriage, and offence of defamation, culpable homicide, murder, dowry death, abetment of suicide, hurt, force. criminal force, assault, kidnapping, sexual offences, mischief, criminal trespass, etc.

7.Property law

Property law is the area of law that governs the ownership, use, and transfer of real property and personal property. Real property refers to land and any permanent structures attached to it, while personal property refers to movable items such as cars, furniture, and jewelry.

Property law covers a wide range of issues, such as the acquisition, possession, use, and disposal of property. It sets out the rules for buying and selling property, leasing property, and financing property transactions. It also provides rules for resolving disputes between property owners, tenants, and other parties.

One important aspect of property law is the concept of ownership. Property owners have the right to use and control their property as they see fit, subject to certain limitations imposed by law. For example, zoning laws may restrict the types of activities that can take place on a particular piece of property, while environmental regulations may require property owners to take certain steps to protect the environment.

Another important aspect of property law is the concept of title. Title refers to the legal right to own and use property. In order to transfer property to another person, a valid title must be established and transferred to the new owner.

Property law also covers the rights and obligations of tenants and landlords in the context of residential and commercial leases. It establishes rules for the payment of rent, the maintenance of the property, and the resolution of disputes between tenants and landlords.

Overall, property law is an important area of law that helps to regulate the ownership and use of real and personal property, and plays a critical role in protecting the rights and interests of property owners, tenants, and other parties.

History, object and scope of Transfer of Property Act, 1882, transfer to unborn person and rules against perpetuity, vested and contingent interest, rules governing apportionment, transfer of immovable property, rule of lis pendens, fraudulent transfers, doctrine of part-performance, etc.

8.Evidence law

Evidence law is the branch of law that governs the use of evidence in legal proceedings, such as trials and hearings. Evidence is any information, material, or testimony that is presented to a court or other tribunal to help prove or disprove a fact in issue.

The main purpose of evidence law is to ensure that the evidence presented in a legal proceeding is reliable, relevant, and trustworthy. To achieve this, evidence law establishes rules for the admissibility of evidence, the types of evidence that may be presented, and the methods by which evidence may be obtained and introduced in court.

One of the key principles of evidence law is the requirement of relevance. Evidence must be directly related to the facts in issue in the case and must be probative, meaning it tends to prove or disprove a fact. Evidence that is not relevant to the case, or that is more prejudicial than probative, may be excluded by the court.

Another important principle of evidence law is the requirement of authenticity. Evidence must be shown to be genuine and not fabricated or altered in any way. This is often established through testimony from witnesses or through scientific or forensic analysis.

Evidence law also establishes rules for the presentation of evidence in court, such as the order in which evidence is presented, the procedures for introducing and challenging evidence, and the requirements for witnesses to testify under oath and be subject to cross-examination.

Overall, evidence law plays a crucial role in ensuring that legal proceedings are conducted fairly and that the evidence presented is reliable and trustworthy. By establishing clear rules and procedures for the use of evidence, evidence law helps to ensure that the outcomes of legal proceedings are based on accurate and trustworthy information.

Relevancy of facts, admissions and confessions, facts need not to be proved, oral evidence, documentary evidence, public documents, estoppel, witnesses, etc.

9.Law of taxation

The law of taxation is the branch of law that governs the collection, administration, and enforcement of taxes. Taxes are payments made to the government by individuals and businesses to support public services and infrastructure.

Taxation law covers a wide range of taxes, including income tax, sales tax, property tax, excise tax, and others. It establishes the rules and procedures for determining tax liability, filing tax returns, and paying taxes owed to the government.

One of the key principles of taxation law is the requirement of fairness. Taxation must be fair and equitable, with the burden of taxation distributed fairly among all members of society. Taxation law also establishes rules for the prevention of tax evasion and the punishment of those who engage in illegal tax practices.

Another important aspect of taxation law is the administration of tax collection. Taxation authorities, such as the Internal Revenue Service in the United States, are responsible for administering the collection of taxes and ensuring that taxpayers comply with the law. This includes conducting audits, investigations, and other enforcement activities to ensure compliance with tax laws.

Taxation law also establishes rules for resolving disputes between taxpayers and taxation authorities, including appeals, administrative hearings, and court proceedings. Taxpayers have the right to challenge tax assessments and dispute the amount of tax owed.

Overall, taxation law is a complex and important area of law that plays a critical role in financing public services and infrastructure. By establishing clear rules and procedures for the collection, administration, and enforcement of taxes, taxation law helps to ensure that taxes are collected fairly and equitably, and that the government has the resources necessary to provide essential services to its citizens.

Meaning, basis of charge, total income, residential status, income deemed to accrue or rise in India, income from house property, profit and gains of business or profession, capital gain, income from other sources, deductions, goods and services tax act 2017, etc.

10.Company law

Company law, also known as corporate law, is the area of law that governs the formation, operation, management, and dissolution of corporations and other business entities. It covers a wide range of legal issues, including the rights and duties of shareholders and directors, corporate governance, and mergers and acquisitions.

One of the key principles of company law is the separate legal personality of the corporation. This means that a corporation is a separate legal entity from its owners or shareholders, and is treated as a person in the eyes of the law. This allows corporations to enter into contracts, own property, and engage in business activities as a separate legal entity.

Another important aspect of company law is the duty of directors to act in the best interests of the company and its shareholders. Directors have a fiduciary duty to act in good faith, with due care and diligence, and to avoid conflicts of interest. They are also responsible for making important decisions on behalf of the company, such as approving major transactions, setting corporate strategy, and appointing senior executives.

Company law also establishes rules for the formation of corporations, including the requirements for registering a corporation with the government, issuing shares of stock, and creating the articles of incorporation and bylaws that govern the operation of the corporation.

In addition, company law covers a wide range of other legal issues related to corporations and other business entities, including mergers and acquisitions, securities law, bankruptcy, and shareholder rights.

Overall, company law plays a crucial role in regulating the formation and operation of corporations and other business entities, and helps to ensure that these entities are operated in a fair and transparent manner, with the interests of shareholders and other stakeholders in mind.

Definition and kinds of companies, theory of corporate personality, lifting of corporate veil, incorporation of companies, memorandum of association, doctrine of ultra vires, articles of association, prospectus, liability for mis-statements, general principles, shares, forfeiture of shares dematerialized form of securities, debt capital, majority rule and minority protection, etc.

Interpretation of statutes and principles of legislation – Meaning, principles, types, meaning of statutes, types of statutes, mischief rule, strict rule, golden rule, purposive interpretation, mensrea, generalia speciali bus non derogant, in pari material, lex non cogit and impossibilia, etc.

11.Criminal procedure code

The Criminal Procedure Code (CPC) is a body of law that governs the procedures that must be followed during a criminal investigation, trial, and appeal. The purpose of the CPC is to ensure that criminal proceedings are conducted fairly and efficiently, while also protecting the rights of defendants and victims.

The CPC sets out the procedures that must be followed by law enforcement officials during the investigation of a crime, including the gathering of evidence, questioning of suspects, and arrest of suspects. It also outlines the procedures that must be followed during the trial phase of a criminal case, including the rules of evidence, the rights of defendants, and the procedures for sentencing.

One of the key principles of the CPC is the presumption of innocence. This means that a defendant is presumed innocent until proven guilty in a court of law, and that the burden of proof lies with the prosecution to prove the guilt of the defendant beyond a reasonable doubt.

Another important principle of the CPC is the right to a fair trial. Defendants have the right to a fair and impartial trial, with the opportunity to present evidence and cross-examine witnesses. They also have the right to legal counsel and the right to appeal a conviction.

The CPC also establishes rules for the protection of victims of crimes, including the rights of victims to participate in criminal proceedings and to be protected from intimidation or retaliation.

Overall, the Criminal Procedure Code is a vital component of the criminal justice system, as it provides a framework for ensuring that criminal proceedings are conducted fairly and efficiently, while also protecting the rights of defendants and victims.

Rationale and importance of fair trial, functionaries under the criminal justice administration, classification, hierarchy and organisation of criminal courts, aid to magistrates and police, arrest, process to compel appearance, initiation of criminal case, maintenance of public order and tranquillity, cognizance by magistrate not empowered, limitation, complaint to magistrates, appeals, suspension of sentence and suspension of conviction, reference and revision, execution, suspension, remission and commutation of sentences, provisions as to bails and bonds, inherent powers, etc.

12.Civil procedure code

Civil Procedure Code (CPC) is a set of rules and regulations that govern the process by which civil lawsuits are conducted in courts. The purpose of the CPC is to ensure that civil proceedings are conducted in a fair and efficient manner, while also protecting the rights of the parties involved.

The CPC sets out the procedures that must be followed during the various stages of a civil lawsuit, including the filing of the complaint, the service of process, the discovery process, and the trial. It also includes rules for the conduct of appeals and post-judgment procedures.

One of the key principles of the CPC is the right to due process. This means that all parties to a civil lawsuit have the right to a fair and impartial hearing, with the opportunity to present evidence, cross-examine witnesses, and be heard by an impartial judge or jury.

Another important principle of the CPC is the concept of jurisdiction. The CPC establishes the rules for determining which court has the authority to hear a particular case, based on factors such as the location of the parties and the amount of money at stake.

The CPC also establishes rules for the pre-trial and trial processes, including the procedures for discovery, which allows the parties to obtain relevant evidence from each other, and the rules of evidence, which determine what types of evidence are admissible in court.

Overall, the Civil Procedure Code plays an important role in ensuring that civil lawsuits are conducted in a fair and efficient manner, while also protecting the rights of the parties involved. By providing a clear framework for the conduct of civil lawsuits, the CPC helps to ensure that justice is served and that disputes are resolved in a timely and equitable manner.

General definitions including decree and mesne profits jurisdiction of courts, res subjudice, res judicata, parties to suits, place of institution, appearance of parties, interpleader suits, arrest and detention, legal disability and computation of period of limitation, etc.

13.Drafting, pleading and conveyancing

Drafting, pleading, and conveyancing are three important areas of legal practice that involve the preparation of legal documents and the representation of clients in legal proceedings.

Drafting involves the creation of legal documents, such as contracts, wills, deeds, and other legal instruments. The drafting process requires a thorough understanding of the legal issues involved, as well as the ability to write clearly and concisely. Lawyers who specialize in drafting must also be able to negotiate and communicate effectively with clients, as well as other lawyers and professionals.

Pleading involves the preparation of legal documents that are filed with a court in order to initiate or respond to a legal action. This includes documents such as complaints, answers, motions, and other pleadings. Lawyers who specialize in pleading must be familiar with the rules of procedure for the court in which they are practicing, as well as the substantive law that applies to the case.

Conveyancing involves the preparation and execution of legal documents related to the transfer of property, such as deeds, mortgages, and leases. Lawyers who specialize in conveyancing must have a thorough understanding of property law, as well as the ability to conduct due diligence and ensure that all legal requirements are met in the transfer of property.

Overall, drafting, pleading, and conveyancing are important areas of legal practice that require a combination of legal knowledge, drafting skills, and communication and negotiation abilities. Lawyers who specialize in these areas play an important role in helping clients navigate the complex legal system and achieve their legal objectives.

Fundamental principles of pleadings, revision and amendment of pleadings, plaint, written statement, interlocutory applications, execution petition, memorandum of appeal and revision civil miscellaneous applications, caveat, application for condonation of delay, regular bail application, anticipatory bail application, memorandum of appeal and revision, lease deed, etc.

3-Year LLB Books List

Following are recommended books for the syllabus covered during 3-year LLB 2023 programme:

Jurisprudence – Dr. N.V. Paranjape, Studies in Jurisprudence and Legal Theory, Central Law Agency, Allahabad

Constitutional law – P.M. Bakshi, Constitution of India, 8th Edition, Universal Law Publications

Law of contract – RK Bangia, Indian Contract Act, 13th Edition, Allahabad Law Agency

Law of torts – Avtar Singh, Law of Consumer Protection: Principles and Practice, Eastern Book Company

Labour law – OP Malhotra, Law of Industrial Disputes, 4th Edition, N.M. Tripathi Pvt. Ltd.

Law of crimes – RSA Pillai Criminal Law, 13th Edition, Lexis Nexis

Property law – Mulla, Transfer of Property, 10th Edition, LexisNexis Butterworths

Company law – Indian Company Law, Avtar Singh, Eastern Book Company, Lucknow

Interpretation of Statutes and Principles of Legislation – J Benathm, Priniciples of Morals and Legislation

Income tax act – KailashRai: Taxation Laws, 9th Edition, Allahabad Law Agency

Evidence law – Avtar Singh, Principles of the Law of Evidence (2008) Central Law Agency, New Delhi Ameer

Criminal Procedure Code – K.N Chandrasekharan Pillai, Kelkar’s Criminal Procedure

Civil Procedure Code – C.K. Takwani

Drafting, Pleading and Conveyancing – Dr.Neetu Gupta: Basic Fundamentals of Legal Pleadings, Drafting & Conveyancing: A Complete Handbook

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

  1. Which book is best for IPC in a 3-year LLB course?

You can purchase RSA Pillai Criminal Law 13th Edition LexisNexis for IPC subject.

  1. Should I study bare act along with text books to pass the LLB course?

Candidates are advised to read bare acts along with the subject textbook for in depth understanding of subjects.

  1. Can I purchase LLB books online?

Yes, LLB textbooks and bare acts are available to purchase online for candidates.

  1. What are the subjects in 1st semester of 3-year LLB?

The subjects included in 1st semester of 3-year LLB are Jurisprudence, contract law, Constitution of India, Law of torts, etc.

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